Sample records for mushroom termitomyces microcarpus


  1. Heteroglycan of an edible mushroom Termitomyces clypeatus: structure elucidation and antioxidant properties.PubMed

    Pattanayak, Manabendra; Samanta, Surajit; Maity, Prasenjit; Sen, Ipsita K; Nandi, Ashis K; Manna, Dilip K; Mitra, Payel; Acharya, Krishnendu; Islam, Syed S

    2015-09-01

    A water-soluble heteroglycan (PS) of an average molecular weight ?1.98 ×10(5) Da was isolated from the aqueous extract of an edible mushroom Termitomyces clypeatus (R. Heim). The structure of the polysaccharide (PS) was established using total hydrolysis, methylation analysis, Smith degradation, and 1D/2D NMR experiments. Total hydrolysis indicated the presence of d-glucose, d-galactose, d-mannose, and l-fucose in a molar ratio of 4.10:1.95:1.0:0.95, respectively. The chemical and NMR analysis indicated the presence of a repeating unit with a backbone consisting of one each of the residues (1?3)-?-d-galactopyranosyl, (1?3)-?-d-mannopyranosyl, (1?3)-?-d-glucopyranosyl, (1?3)-?-d-glucopyranosyl, (1?6)-?-d-glucopyranosyl, and (1?6)-?-d-galactopyranosyl, respectively. The (1?3)-?-d-mannopyranosyl residue was found branched at O-2 with terminal ?-l-fucopyranosyl moiety and (1?3)-?-d-glucopyranosyl residue was branched at O-6 with terminal ?-d-glucopyranosyl residue. The PS exhibited antioxidant properties. PMID:26074031

  2. A water soluble ?-glucan of an edible mushroom Termitomyces heimii: Structural and biological investigation.PubMed

    Manna, Dilip K; Nandi, Ashis K; Pattanayak, Manabendra; Maity, Prasenjit; Tripathy, Satyajit; Mandal, Amit K; Roy, Somenath; Tripathy, Sushri S; Gupta, Nibha; Islam, Syed S

    2015-12-10

    A water soluble ?-glucan (PS-I) with an average molecular weight ? 1.48 × 10(5)Da was isolated from the alkaline extract of an edible mushroom Termitomyces heimii. PS-I contained (1 ? 3)-, (1 ? 6)-, (1 ? 3, 6)-linked and terminal ?-d-glucopyranosyl moieties in a ratio of nearly 2:1:1:1. Based on the total hydrolysis, methylation analysis, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, partial hydrolysis and 1D/2D NMR experiments the structure of the PS-I was elucidated. On the basis of these experiments, the repeating unit of the polysaccharide was found to consist of a backbone chain of two (1 ? 6)-?-D-glucopyranosyl residues, one of which was branched at O-3 position with the side chain consisting of two (1 ? 3)-?-D-glucopyranosyl and a terminal ?-D-glucopyranosyl residue. Cytotoxic effect of PS-I on human blood lymphocytes at varied concentrations was studied. Moreover, it also exhibited potent antioxidant activities by diminishing the ROS and NO in the nicotine stimulated lymphocytes up to 200 ?g/ml. PMID:26428137

  3. Nucleotide Sequencing and Identification of Some Wild MushroomsPubMed Central

    Das, Sudip Kumar; Mandal, Aninda; Datta, Animesh K.; Gupta, Sudha; Paul, Rita; Saha, Aditi; Sengupta, Sonali; Dubey, Priyanka Kumari

    2013-01-01

    The rDNA-ITS (Ribosomal DNA Internal Transcribed Spacers) fragment of the genomic DNA of 8 wild edible mushrooms (collected from Eastern Chota Nagpur Plateau of West Bengal, India) was amplified using ITS1 (Internal Transcribed Spacers 1) and ITS2 primers and subjected to nucleotide sequence determination for identification of mushroomsas mentioned. The sequences were aligned using ClustalW software program. The aligned sequences revealed identity (homology percentage from GenBank data base) of Amanita hemibapha [CN (Chota Nagpur) 1, % identity 99 (JX844716.1)], Amanita sp. [CN 2, % identity 98 (JX844763.1)], Astraeus hygrometricus [CN 3, % identity 87 (FJ536664.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 4, % identity 90 (JF746992.1)], Termitomyces sp. [CN 5, % identity 99 (GU001667.1)], T. microcarpus [CN 6, % identity 82 (EF421077.1)],Termitomyces sp. [CN 7, % identity 76 (JF746993.1)], and Volvariella volvacea [CN 8, % identity 100 (JN086680.1)]. Although out of 8 mushrooms 4 could be identified up to species level, the nucleotide sequences of the rest may be relevant to further characterization. A phylogenetic tree is constructed using Neighbor-Joining method showing interrelationship between/among the mushrooms. The determined nucleotide sequences of the mushrooms may provide additional information enriching GenBank database aiding to molecular taxonomy and facilitating its domestication and characterization for human benefits. PMID:24489501

  4. Medicinal uses of mushrooms in Nigeria: towards full and sustainable exploitation.PubMed

    Oyetayo, Olusegun V

    2011-01-01

    For centuries, mushrooms have been appreciated as sources of food nutrients and pharmacologically important compounds useful in medicine. Yet not all the medicinal properties of mushrooms have been exploited. The above statement is more pertinent to mushrooms that are indigenous to Nigeria. There are inadequate data on the identity and medicinal properties of these wild mushrooms. Information on the ethnomedicinal uses of some mushrooms such as Pleurotus tuber-regium used for headache, stomach pain fever, cold, constipation; Lentinus squarullosus for mumps, heart diseases; Termitomyces microcarpus for gonorrhea; Calvatia cyathiformis for leucorrhea, barreness; Ganoderma lucidum for treating arthritis, neoplasia; G. resinaceum used for hyperglycemia, liver diseases (hepatoprotector); G. applanatum used as antioxidant and for diabetes had been gathered through survey. The above information is mostly obtained from traditional herbalists who in most cases will not disclose their preparation compositions. A lot of these mushrooms are obtained only in the wild. Scientific documents of the identities and medicinal properties are still scanty. Preliminary studies on some species of Temitomyces, Lenzites and Lentinus species showed that they possess appreciable antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Moreover, molecular characterization also reveals that they are not 100% homologous with existing sequences under the same name in GenBank. It is therefore pertinent that well structured studies on their ecology, identification and medicinal uses be carried out. This will make the full exploitation of the medicinal potentials of mushrooms indigenous to Nigeria realizable. PMID:22468005

  5. MushroomsMedlinePLUS

    … Your Best Self Smart Snacking Losing Weight Safely Mushrooms KidsHealth > Teens > Drugs & Alcohol > Drugs > Mushrooms Print A … Can Someone Quit? AvoidingMushrooms What Are Hallucinogenic Mushrooms? We think of mushrooms as a food. But …

  6. Biologically active secondary metabolites from Asphodelus microcarpusTechnology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassay guided fractionation of the ethanolic extract of Asphodelus microcarpus Salzm.et Vivi (Asphodelaceae) resulted in the isolation of one new metabolite, 1,6-dimethoxy-3-methyl-2-naphthoic acid (1) as well as nine known compounds: asphodelin (2), chrysophanol (3), 8-methoxychrysophanol (4), em…

  7. Isolation and characterization of secondary metabolites from Asphodelus microcarpusTechnology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassay guided fractionation of the ethanolic extract of Asphodelus microcarpus Salzm.et Vivi (Asphodelaceae) resulted in the isolation of two hitherto unknown compounds , methy-1, 4, 5-trihydroxy-7-methyl-9,10-dioxo-9,10dihydroanthracene-2-carboxylate (1) and (1R) 3, 10-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1H-1,4-e…

  8. Hydrolysis of Oligosaccharides by a Thermostable ?-Galactosidase from Termitomyces eurrhizusPubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiwei; Du, Fang; Wang, Li; Zhao, Liyan; Wang, Hexiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-01-01

    The genus of Termitomyces purchased from the market has been identified as Termitomyces eurrhizus using the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) method. An ?-galactosidase from T. eurrhizus (TEG), a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 72 kDa, was purified 146 fold by employing ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The optimum pH and temperature was 5.0 and 60 °C, respectively. TEG was stable over pH 2–6, and also exhibited good thermostablility, retaining 100% of the original activity after incubation at 60 °C for 2 h. Inhibition of the enzyme activity by N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) constituted evidence for an essential role of tryptophan in the catalytic action of the isolated enzyme. Besides 4-nitro-phenyl ?-d-galactophyranoside (pNPGal), natural substrates could also be effectively hydrolyzed by TEG. Results of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) revealed complete enzymatic hydrolysis of raffinose and stachyose to galactose at 50 °C within 6 h. These properties of TEG advocate its utilization for elevating the nutritional value of soymilk. PMID:26670230

  9. Hydrolysis of Oligosaccharides by a Thermostable ?-Galactosidase from Termitomyces eurrhizus.PubMed

    Zhang, Weiwei; Du, Fang; Wang, Li; Zhao, Liyan; Wang, Hexiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-01-01

    The genus of Termitomyces purchased from the market has been identified as Termitomyces eurrhizus using the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) method. An ?-galactosidase from T. eurrhizus (TEG), a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 72 kDa, was purified 146 fold by employing ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The optimum pH and temperature was 5.0 and 60 °C, respectively. TEG was stable over pH 2-6, and also exhibited good thermostablility, retaining 100% of the original activity after incubation at 60 °C for 2 h. Inhibition of the enzyme activity by N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) constituted evidence for an essential role of tryptophan in the catalytic action of the isolated enzyme. Besides 4-nitro-phenyl ?-d-galactophyranoside (pNPGal), natural substrates could also be effectively hydrolyzed by TEG. Results of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) revealed complete enzymatic hydrolysis of raffinose and stachyose to galactose at 50 °C within 6 h. These properties of TEG advocate its utilization for elevating the nutritional value of soymilk. PMID:26670230

  10. Diversity of Termitomyces Associated with Fungus-Farming Termites Assessed by Cultural and Culture-Independent MethodsPubMed Central

    Makonde, Huxley M.; Boga, Hamadi I.; Osiemo, Zipporah; Mwirichia, Romano; Stielow, J. Benjamin; Göker, Markus; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background Fungus-cultivating termites make use of an obligate mutualism with fungi from the genus Termitomyces, which are acquired through either vertical transmission via reproductive alates or horizontally transmitted during the formation of new mounds. Termitomyces taxonomy, and thus estimating diversity and host specificity of these fungi, is challenging because fruiting bodies are rarely found. Molecular techniques can be applied but need not necessarily yield the same outcome than morphological identification. Methodology Culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were used to comprehensively assess host specificity and gut fungal diversity. Termites were identified using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II (COII) genes. Twenty-three Termitomyces cultures were isolated from fungal combs. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) clone libraries were constructed from termite guts. Presence of Termitomyces was confirmed using specific and universal primers. Termitomyces species boundaries were estimated by cross-comparison of macromorphological and sequence features, and ITS clustering parameters accordingly optimized. The overall trends in coverage of Termitomyces diversity and host associations were estimated using Genbank data. Results and Conclusion Results indicate a monoculture of Termitomyces in the guts as well as the isolation sources (fungal combs). However, cases of more than one Termitomyces strains per mound were observed since mounds can contain different termite colonies. The newly found cultures, as well as the clustering analysis of GenBank data indicate that there are on average between one and two host genera per Termitomyces species. Saturation does not appear to have been reached, neither for the total number of known Termitomyces species nor for the number of Termitomyces species per host taxon, nor for the number of known hosts per Termitomyces species. Considering the rarity of Termitomyces fruiting bodies, it is suggested to base the future taxonomy of the group mainly on well-characterized and publicly accessible cultures. PMID:23437139

  11. Three new species of Epicephala Meyrick (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae) associated with Phyllanthus microcarpus (Benth.) (Phyllanthaceae)PubMed Central

    Li, Houhun; Yang, Xiaofei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of Epicephala Meyrick, 1880 are described based on specimens reared from fruits of Phyllanthus microcarpus (Benth.): Epicephala microcarpa sp. n. and Epicephala laeviclada sp. n. from Guangxi and Hainan, and Epicephala tertiaria sp. n. from Guangdong and Guangxi. Photographs of adults and illustrations of genital structures are provided. PMID:25829842

  12. Mushroom PoisoningMedlinePLUS

    MENU … can’t tell for sure if a mushroom is poisonous by looking at it, unless you are an expert at identifying mushrooms. There are no tests to help you tell a poisonousmushroom from a nonpoisonous mushroom. Does it help to see how the wild …

  13. Furlough MushroomsTechnology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The manuscript provides a protocol for preserving two species of mushroom (Agaricus campestris or meadow mushroom, and A. arvensis or horse mushroom) in strong wine.Mushrooms are kept at a low boil for 10 minutes, placed in clean canning jars, and covered with wine (12% ethanol) or fortified wine (…

  14. Secretion of cellobiase is mediated via vacuoles in Termitomyces clypeatus.PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sumana; Khowala, Suman

    2002-01-01

    The majority of cellobiase activity in Termitomyces clypeatus was localized in vacuolar fractions of the fungus under secretory and nonsecretory conditions of growth. Activities of marker proteins for subcellular organelles, e.g., vacuoles, cytosol, ER, and mitochondria, in mycelial extracts from the secreting conditions increased by approximately 20, 12, 5, and 2.5 times, respectively, as compared to those obtained from mycelium grown in nonsecreting conditions. The average size and concentration of vacuoles visualized by electron microscopy were also increased in secreting conditions in the fungus. The specific activity of cellobiase in vacuoles isolated in Ficoll-sucrose gradient, as obtained from mycelial growth in secretory medium, was more than 40 times higher in comparison to that found from nonsecretory medium. The results indicated that subcellular localization of cellobiase in vacuoles is regulated by the cellular signaling prevailing in the fungus. Mycelial extraction of intracellular proteins by hand grinding and by bead-beater from cells frozen in the presence or absence of liquid nitrogen was also compared. Maximum recovery of intracellular protein was obtained with the bead-beater under aerobic conditions in the absence of nitrogen. Highest recovery of vacuoles up to 85% was obtained by single-step ultracentrifugation of the mycelial extract of the fungus in Ficoll-sucrose gradient. The method appeared to be useful for separation of other subcellular organelles in filamentous fungi. PMID:12467451

  15. Ethnomycological studies of edible and medicinal mushrooms in the Mount Cameroon region (Cameroon, Africa).PubMed

    Kinge, Tonjock R; Tabi, Ebai M; Mih, Afui M; Enow, Egbe A; Njouonkou, L; Nji, T M

    2011-01-01

    Inhabitants of the Mount Cameroon region depend on the forest resources of the region for their livelihood, including the diverse use of macrofungi. With the increasing loss of forest due to exploitation and urbanization, they are liable to rapidly lose their indigenous knowledge of the forest resources, especially of mushrooms. An ethnomycological survey was conducted with the aim of documenting the indigenous knowledge of mushrooms as a prelude to conservation efforts. We also sought to assess the mycophilic and mycophobic tendencies of the inhabitants. It was revealed that traditionally, mushrooms were used as food, medicine, for mythological purposes, for aesthetics, and some poisonous species were also recorded. At least 15 different species were identified to be edible among the Bakweri people. Species used for ethnomedicine among the Bakweris belonged to several genera, including Termitomyces, Auricularia, Agaricus, Daldinia, Dictyophora, Pleurotus, Russula, Trametes, Chlorophyllum, and Ganoderma. Mushroomswere used as love charms, for dispelling evil spirits, and as part of cultural festivals. PMID:22135882

  16. The scope for nuclear selection within Termitomyces fungi associated with fungus-growing termites is limitedPubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We investigate the scope for selection at the level of nuclei within fungal individuals (mycelia) of the mutualistic Termitomyces cultivated by fungus-growing termites. Whereas in most basidiomycete fungi the number and kind of nuclei is strictly regulated to be two per cell, in Termitomyces mycelia the number of nuclei per cell is highly variable. We hypothesised that natural selection on these fungi not only occurs between mycelia, but also at the level of nuclei within the mycelium. We test this hypothesis using in vitro tests with five nuclear haplotypes of a Termitomyces species. Results First, we studied the transition from a mixture of five homokaryons (mycelia with identical nuclei) each with a different nuclear haplotype to heterokaryons (mycelia with genetically different nuclei). In vitro cultivation of this mixture for multiple asexual transfers led to the formation of multiple heterokaryotic mycelia, and a reduction of mycelial diversity over time. All heterokaryotic mycelia contained exactly two types of nucleus. The success of a heterokaryon during in vitro cultivation was mainly determined by spore production and to a lesser extent by mycelial growth rate. Second, heterokaryons invariably produced more spores than homokaryons implying that homokaryons will be outcompeted. Third, no homokaryotic ‘escapes’ from a heterokaryon via the formation of homokaryotic spores were found, despite extensive spore genotyping. Fourth, in contrast to most studied basidiomycete fungi, in Termitomyces sp. no nuclear migration occurs during mating, limiting the scope for nuclear competition within the mycelium. Conclusions Our experiments demonstrate that in this species of Termitomyces the scope for selection at the level of the nucleus within an established mycelium is limited. Although ‘mate choice’ of a particular nuclear haplotype is possible during mating, we infer that selection primarily occurs between mycelia with two types of nucleus (heterokaryons). PMID:24902958

  17. [Mushroom poisoning].PubMed

    Trueb, L; Carron, P-N; Saviuc, P

    2013-08-14

    Mushroom poisoning is a regular complaint for consultation in emergency facilities. These situations are usually benign and symptomatic treatment is sufficient. However, severe damage can occur, potentially life-threatening. We review the various syndromes associated with the toxins involved, their management and the major signs that are suggestive of serious injury and requiring hospitalization. PMID:24024391

  18. Comparative study of contents of several bioactive components in fruiting bodies and mycelia of culinary-medicinal mushrooms.PubMed

    Lo, Yu-Chang; Lin, Shin-Yi; Ulziijargal, Enkhjargal; Chen, Shin-Yu; Chien, Rao-Chi; Tzou, Yi-Jing; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms have been consumed for thousands of years, and several bioactive components were found therein, including lovastatin, ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and ergothioneine. The study reported herein was to analyze these three bioactive components in 15 fruiting bodies and 9 mycelia of 19 species of mushrooms from genera Agaricus, Agrocybe, Auricularia, Boletus, Ganoderma, Hypsizygus, Inonotus, Lentinus, Morchella, Pleurotus, Tremella, Termitomyces, and Volvariella. The results show that Hypsizygus marmoreus contained the highest amount of lovastatin (628.05 mg/kg) in fruiting bodies and Morchella esculenta contained the highest amount (1438.42 mg/ kg) in mycelia. Agaricus brasiliensis contained the highest amount of GABA (1844.85 mg/kg) in fruiting bodies, and mycelia of Boletus edulis, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, andTermitomyces albuminosus contained extraordinarily higher amounts (1274.03, 1631.67, and 2560.00 mg/kg, respectively). Volvariella volvacea contained the highest amount of ergothioneine (537.27 mg/kg) in fruiting bodies and mycelia; Boletus edulis, Pleurotus ferulae, and P. salmoneostramineus contained relatively higher amount of ergothioneine too (258.03, 250.23, and 222.08 mg/kg, respectively). However, none of these components was detected in fruiting bodies of Inonotus obliquus. In conclusion, these three bioactive components were commonly found in most mushrooms, and these results might be related to their beneficial effects. PMID:23510173

  19. Nutritional composition of two wild mushrooms consumed by the tribals of the Western Ghats of IndiaPubMed Central

    Sudheep, Naga M.; Sridhar, Kandikere R.

    2014-01-01

    This study provides the nutritional qualities of two wild mushrooms (Agaricus abruptibulbus and Termitomyces globulus) commonly consumed by the tribals of Kaiga forests of the Western Ghats of India. Both mushrooms composed of high quantity of crude protein, crude fibre, calorific value and low quantity of crude lipid. Potassium and selenium contents were high, while sodium, calcium and phosphorus contents were low. Except for three essential amino acids (EAAs: leucine, tyrosine and lysine), the rest of the amino acids in both mushrooms were comparable to soybean and wheat. Based on the EAA standards of FAO-WHO, these mushrooms composed of high quantity of threonine, isoleucine and histidine. The EAA score of isoleucine in cooked A. abruptibulbus and threonine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, histidine and sulphur amino acids in cooked T. globulus were substantially high. Oleic acid constitutes a major unsaturated fatty acid in these mushrooms, which was significantly increased in cooked A. abruptibulbus. Cooking also increased the ratio of TUFA/TSFA in A. abruptibulbus, while it was opposite in T. globulus. Cooking significantly increased the linoleic acid in A. abruptibulbus and eicosadienoic acid in T. globulus. PMID:24999438

  20. [Poisonous mushrooms, mushroom poisons and mushroom poisoning. A review].PubMed

    Holsen, D S; Aarebrot, S

    1997-09-30

    Of 1,500 different types of Norwegian mushrooms, 60-100 are considered poisonous. Fatal intoxications occur very infrequently. Lack of knowledge of picking and preparingmushrooms and accidental or deliberate consumption are recognised causes of mushroom poisoning. Delayed onset of symptoms (> 5-6 hrs) indicates serious poisoning, and these patients must be admitted to hospital. Cytotoxic toxins (e.g. amatoxin, orellanin) cause serious damage to the visceral organs (liver, kidney) and require intensive treatment, including hemoperfusion. Neurotoxic toxins may cause dramatic, but less harmful peripheral or central symptoms affecting the peripheral and central nervous systems, including hallucinations. Some mushrooms cause gastroenteritis of low clinical significance within a few hours after consumption. Interaction between mushrooms and alcohol may lead to a disulfiram-like effect. Induced vomiting and activated charcoal are important initial therapeutic measures. The precise history of the patient and the collecting of mushroom remnants, including vomitus, may help to identify the particular mushroom. In Norway, the National Poison Information Centre may be contacted for further advice. PMID:9411893

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